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Old 10-10-2019, 11:35 AM
gary
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Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2019 goes to key developers of lithium ion battery

Quote:
Originally Posted by Nobel Press Release
Press release: The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2019

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2019 to

John B. Goodenough
The University of Texas at Austin, USA

M. Stanley Whittingham
Binghamton University, State University of New York, USA

Akira Yoshino
Asahi Kasei Corporation, Tokyo, Japan
Meijo University, Nagoya, Japan

"for the development of lithium-ion batteries"

They created a rechargeable world

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2019 rewards the development of the lithium-ion battery. This lightweight, rechargeable and powerful battery is now used in everything from mobile phones to laptops and electric vehicles. It can also store significant amounts of energy from solar and wind power, making possible a fossil fuel-free society.

Lithium-ion batteries are used globally to power the portable electronics that we use to communicate, work, study, listen to music and search for knowledge. Lithiumion batteries have also enabled the development of long-range electric cars and the storage of energy from renewable sources, such as solar and wind power.

The foundation of the lithium-ion battery was laid during the oil crisis in the 1970s. Stanley Whittingham worked on developing methods that could lead to fossil fuel-free energy technologies. He started to research superconductors and discovered an extremely energy-rich material, which he used to create an innovative cathode in a lithium battery. This was made from titanium disulphide which, at a molecular level, has spaces that can house – intercalate – lithium ions.

The battery's anode was partially made from metallic lithium, which has a strong drive to release electrons. This resulted in a battery that literally had great potential, just over two volts. However, metallic lithium is reactive and the battery was too explosive to be viable.

John Goodenough predicted that the cathode would have even greater potential if it was made using a metal oxide instead of a metal sulphide. After a systematic search, in 1980 he demonstrated that cobalt oxide with intercalated lithium ions can produce as much as four volts. This was an important breakthrough and would lead to much more powerful batteries.

With Goodenough's cathode as a basis, Akira Yoshino created the first commercially viable lithium-ion battery in 1985. Rather than using reactive lithium in the anode, he used petroleum coke, a carbon material that, like the cathode's cobalt oxide, can intercalate lithium ions.

The result was a lightweight, hardwearing battery that could be charged hundreds of times before its performance deteriorated. The advantage of lithium-ion batteries is that they are not based upon chemical reactions that break down the electrodes, but upon lithium ions flowing back and forth between the anode and cathode.

Lithium-ion batteries have revolutionised our lives since they first entered the market in 1991. They have laid the foundation of a wireless, fossil fuel-free society, and are of the greatest benefit to humankind.

Story here :-
https://phys.org/news/2019-10-nobel-...batteries.html
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Old 10-10-2019, 05:38 PM
Astronovice (Calvin)
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Vanadium Redox battery

Whilst lithium ion batteries will undoubtably play an increasing part of the immediate future it is likely that vanadium redox batteries will increasingly take over the storage role in large energy storage projects.

As the storage market continues to expand ever more rapidly then emphasis on system safety will increase. There has already been a number of explosions and subsequent fires involving lithium ion battery systems, such as the one in the 2MW solar / energy storage grid connected facility in Surprise, Arizona in April this year. The vanadium redox system carries none of this risk, being inherently stable. It also has the advantage of being capable of ten times the number of charge / discharge cycles before failure when compared to lithium ion batteries.

The vanadium redox battery is about twice as expensive to manufacture as lithium ion but has a much longer life cycle capability. Being a liquid electrolyte based system allows it to be charged whilst it is discharging via an electrolyte exchange process. These properties lend it to large storage systems, although 10kW modules are available.

The vanadium redox battery was invented by Professor Maria Skyllas-Kazacos, who graduated from UNSW with an industrial chemistry engineering degree in 1974, winning the university medal in the process.
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