1. Quantum Mechanics
Einstein believed in strict causality/determinism. ie, no randomness in nature.
Quantum Mechanics on the other hand refutes causality as its fundamental tenet is statistical probabilities.
Einstein grudgingly accepted QM because it worked, however he believed that there was a yet to be discovered fundamental theory of nature.
In a sense he was correct as QM defers to classicality through decoherence.
ie, observe the cat and the probability wave collapses.
It is ironic considering that his work on the photoelectric effect and EPR
(spooky action at a distance) kickstarted QM.
Neils Bohr formulated the Copenhagen Interpretation of QM which states that it is only possible to calculate the probabilities outcomes. Einstein rejected this and stated that God does not play dice.
However, Bohr's argument was flawed in that the Copenhagen Interpretation treated the observer and the act of measurement as classical objects.
This means that the evolution of the wave function must be explained by deterministic equations. QM combines probabilistic interpretation with deterministic dynamics.
2. Cosmological constant.
The jury is still out on this as it may yet prove to be his greatest insight into cosmology. Einstein's mistake was that he considered it a mistake.
3. Keeping the math simple.
General Relativity relies on the principle of equivalence and that the math should be simple and aesthetically pleasing. The math was limited to second order differential equations and this in turn limited the number of spacetime derivatives.
4. Grand Unification Theory.
Einstein became a victim of his own success. He also did not consider the weak and strong nuclear force in the gravity and electromagnetic scenario.
Having said all this, once he was sidelined by mainstream science in his later years, he still contributed in many different ways to science and humanity.
It cannot be disputed that he was one of the greatest forces (if not the greatest) in science mankind has ever experienced.